Textile dictionary

The term weave describes the pattern formed by the arrangement of warp and weft threads. There are three basic weaves: tabby weave, twill weave and atlas weave.

Lattice tulle

Non-sensitive, uncomplicated material. In spite of its very large regular lattice structure, lattice tulle is extremely hard wearing and durable. Lattice tulle is the perfect fit for a modern, clearly structured furnishing style.

Atlas weave

Distinguished by its regularly scattered binding points, this weave comprises of at least five warp and five weft threads. Atlas fabrics have long floatings which distinguish this fabric from others. Fabrics using Atlas weave are reversible.

Burn-out

This process is similar to screen painting although instead of using colour a discharge paste is used. This paste destroys part of the fabric, creating a burn-out effect. The basic fabric for this effect needs to be a mix of at least two fibrous materials. One of the materials, such as polyester, will not be damaged by the burn-out technique whereas the other material, normally cellulose like cotton, linen or viscose will be destroyed by the discharge. In the burn-out sections the fabric becomes transparent.

Finishes

Collective term for finishing processes applied to textile fabrics, yarns and fibres. The finish often follows the actual manufacturing process and optimizes the material properties and the practical value of the piece of textile for the field of use desired, such as the feel or the look.

Chintz

The term chintz (from Hindi) originally describes a thin, shiny cotton fabric finished with wax in a tabby weave, often used as a decorative fabric. Today, synthetic resins and friction calendars are used to achieve a high sheen and improved wear resistance.

Reversible fabrics

A combination of two or more cloths woven in the loom at the same time and held together by binder threads. Properties include a multitude of variations, volume and a three-dimensional fabric effect. The patterns are the same on both sides, displaying a reversible effect.

Printed fabrics

Printing is defined as the application of colour within one repeat. Fibres, yarns, warps, fabrics and knitted fabrics can all be printed on. The printing techniques differ according to the surface (hand printing, stamp printing), gravure printing, stencil printing (flat or rotary screen printing) and transfer printing.

Flock printing

Special printing method where flock fibres of cotton, wool or artificial fibres are applied onto the fabric. The fabric to be flocked is glued according to the desired pattern and then guided through an electrostatic field in which the flock fibres settle on the fabric at the areas glued. The fibre lengths are usually between 2 and 4mm.

Florentine tulle

The term Florentine describes the embroidery on tulle. This all-over embroidery makes for a valuable textile and a highlight in any interior scheme. Florentine tulle is primarily used for stylish and romantic decorations.

Types of finish:

Chemical Treatment: Important chemical treatments are: dyeing, printing, flame retardant, machine-washable, bleaching, nano, stain release finish, UV blocker, anti-static, anti-bacterial, iron-free, burn-out.

Mechanical Treatment: The mechanical treatment applies mechanical power on the textile, e.g. shearing, coating or shrinkage.

Thermal treatment: The thermal treatment uses heat or an open flame for the finishing process. Important thermal finishes are gassing, fixing, gauffering.



Semi-transparent fabric

The degree of transparency of semi-transparent fabrics lies between a decoration fabric and a voile. In general, semi-transparent fabrics are a little heavier than traditional voiles which have a translucent effect. Semi-transparent fabrics can be used for curtains or top curtains which are used to create a classic scheme.

Jacquard

Collective term for figured woven fabrics with a large repeat. The number of bundles of warp threads is small; in extreme cases each warp thread can be raised or lowered individually according to the pattern. For flat weaves, the jacquard technique fully exhausts the pattern variety offered by the technology especially for large, one-colour or multicolour designs such as gobelins, damasks and large voile designs.

Twill weave

Characteristic to twill weaves is the narrow, diagonal twill line in the fabric (denims). If the twill line runs from top left to down right, this is called an "S" twill line, if it runs from down left to top right, it is called a "Z" twill line. Depending on the weave and thread count, twills can either be dense, smooth and hard wearing or soft and fluffy.

Variations:
Herringbone (or chevron) twills are produced by a change in the rib direction, in which case (in contrast to the pointed rib twill) the binding points are displaced by one or several wefts.

Tabby weave

The simplest, narrowest and most basic weave of all, where one warp thread binds with only one weft thread giving the fabric a smooth and even appearance on both sides.

In the field of cotton weaving, the term calico weave is used, in the field of wool weaving the term ground weave, and for the silk weaving, taffeta weave.

Tabby weave fabrics in the form of grey cotton cloths or calico are the basic materials for the dyeing and printing afterwards (eg. of decorative fabrics).

Organza

Gossamer fabric is produced by using very fine warp and weft threads of natural or man-made fibres. Organza voiles are highly transparent, have a precious sheen and are lightweight, however they are sensitive to creasing.

Scherli

Variation of the Lancé-decoupé transparent voiles (mostly marquisette). The pattern produces a three-dimensional effect due to its voluminous warp and weft threads, which lie loosely between the design elements on the reverse of the fabric. These are then cut after weaving (Broché).

Shantung

Fabric produced in a tabby weave technique (taffeta) and named after a Chinese province. Due to the uses of Chinese wild silk (tussah silk) the weft direction is irregular, stripy, and can have a bobbled appearance. The irregular fabric appearance is also copied using special synthetic yarns so that the natural silk look is available as an easy care product.

Embroidery

This is one of the oldest textile traditions in the world. First evidence of this art form can be seen on Assyrian and Babylonian sculptures. Embroidery threads are drawn through an embroidery ground either by hand or by machine.

The embroidery ground can subsequently be removed completely or partly in case of certain procedures. Embroidery is classified according to the embroidery material, embroidery ground and embroidery technique used. The product is made either by hand or by means of corresponding machines according to different techniques.

Taffeta

Tabby weave fabric with a high warp and weft density, which produces a modern, smooth fabric appearance. Different warp and weft colours create interesting iridescent effects. Many pattern variations are achievable.

Typical finishes of our collection

Flame retardant fabrics
Easy care fabrics
Stain repellent fabrics
Nano-Protect

In the case of the nano finish, the fibres are protected and impregnated by nano particles to form a resistant, invisible and breathable protective layer. Dry soiling does not adhere to the fibre and wet soiling is no longer absorbed, reducing the soil redeposition.

Velvet

Velvet (or velour) is derived from the French language and today is the usual term for most pile fabrics with a cut-open pile loop or a knit fabric, the surface of which adopts a velvety quality due to rising. In case of velvet fabrics, the loops are cut open after the weaving and protrude from the fabric rectangularly. Depending on the depth of pile, velours are called (1) Velvet (up to 2 mm), (2) Velour (between 2 and 4 mm) and (3) Plush (over 4mm)

Black-out fabrics

Black-out fabrics are the perfect alternative to the classic blind. An especially dense fabric is created with the help of a special weave technique, which blacks out the daylight yet creates an elegant and cosy atmosphere.

Voile

Voiles (French = veils) are transparent, fine-thread fabrics produced in a tabby weave. The web and the yarn are twisted in the same direction, which produces a very hard ply yarn. Due to its soft drape, it is mainly used for voiles and sheer lingerie. Voiles are predominantly produced from highly twisted polyester monofil yarns or cotton.